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ALCA, aliança entre a sardinha e o tubarão, ameaça novamente

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Ativação da Quarta Frota e espionagem acenderam sinal de alerta para a região. Morte de Chávez enfraqueceu Alba. Pressão estadunidense busca articular a Alca por meio de tratados de livre comércio com diversos países.

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(7’30” / 6.88 Mb) - Motivo de grande preocupação dos movimentos sociais, a Área de Livre Comércio das Américas (Alca), que foi barrada por meio de luta e enfrentamento dos povos latino-americanos, não foi totalmente derrotada. Pouco a pouco, a conjuntura vai demonstrando que o projeto continua sendo uma das prioridades dos Estados Unidos.

Segundo Joaquin Piñero, do setor de Relações Internacionais do MST, apesar de a América do Sul caminhar para uma integração regional, existe uma forte pressão estadunidense para brecar esse processo e costurar o antigo projeto da Alca. A estratégia se dá a partir de Tratados de Livre Comércio (TLC's) bilaterais que tem sido feitos com diversos países.

"Um acordo dessa magnitude que era proposto pela Alca na época do governo Fernando Henrique Cardoso dos impactos que um acordo como esse teria para os países, principalmente para os países em desenvolvimento era monstruoso do ponto de vista econômico, do ponto de vista social. Então esses são os principais impactos que isso vai ter.”

Uma das investidas de Washington é a formação do acordo Mercosul-EUA. Outra frente de atuação se dá no incentivo à Aliança do Pacífico, formada por Chile, Colômbia, México e Peru. Piñero vê a criação da área de livre comércio como rolo compressor e a considera a "aliança entre a sardinha e o tubarão” e explica possíveis impactos para os países latino-americanos.

"É você fazer uma aliança entre várias sardinhas, podemos dizendo assim usando uma metáfora, que são os países em desenvolvimento, que são os países pobres do nosso continente com o tubarão que são os Estados Unidos porque é o país que tem a maior capacidade de indústria, tem toda uma política forte do ponto de vista de tecnologias. O que caberia a esses países no nosso continente? Nada mais do que se transformar, continuar, vir a ser o fornecedor de matérias-primas e tudo que de fato dentro do sistema mundial do capitalismo é legado a esses países em desenvolvimento.”

Ainda segundo Piñero, se quisermos saber quais serão os impactos do livre-comércio com os EUA, basta avaliar a situação do México. Com a crise internacional, o país foi um dos principais a sofrer consequências sociais, econômicas e uma alta taxa de desemprego.

"O que é o México hoje? O México tem um acordo de livre-comércio com os Estados Unidos, juntamente com o Canadá. E o México em determinado momento se transformou num grande laboratório das montadoras dos Estados Unidos, as chamadas maquiladoras, mas quando houve a crise o que os Estados Unidos fizeram? Retiraram todas as suas empresas de lá e instalaram em outros países e o México ficou com a dívida social gigantesca com alto nível de desemprego, a sua economia patinando."

Em vez de desenvolvimento, as falsas promessas desestabilizaram as estruturas sociais do México, como explica Piñero.

“No México hoje existe um problema de instabilidade política, praticamente é um estado governado por narcotraficantes, não consegue resolver problemas sociais, a questão do desemprego que é gritante, a questão do próprio desenvolvimento do país. Com a crise que houve em 2008, o México de todos os países que tem relação com o Estados Unidos foi o que mais foi afetado. Então só para citar um exemplo do que vai ser, do que pode vir a ser se de fato esse acordo entre Mercosul e Estados Unidos se confirmar."

Alba

Desde a ativação da Quarta Frota na região do Atlântico Sul, em 2008, até os momentos mais recentes marcados pelos escândalos de espionagem promovida pelos Estados Unidos, os governos latino-americanos estão em permanente alerta. Para Piñero, a sensação de insegurança aumentou com a morte Hugo Chávez, em março de 2013. O ex-presidente venezuelano era o principal articulador da Alternativa Bolivariana para os Povos de Nossa América (Alba).

“A própria Alba, que é essa aliança bolivariana que hoje conta com sete países e também por conta da própria morte do Chávez, essa articulação também perdeu um pouco o fôlego. A própria Venezuela está cuidando de questões mais internas. Um outro país importante, Cuba, está vivendo um processo de reestruturação da sua economia. Então está se voltando mais internamente.

Ainda para Piñero a articulação da Alba teve em paralelo a articulação de movimentos sociais na troca de informações e de integração cultural, iniciativas fundamentais para a formação de uma identidade latino-americana.

"Dentro desse processo é que movimentos sociais ligados a esses países no próprio continente tem também feito bons debates em torno de que integração hoje aqui na nossa região, uma integração que não visa tão somente, como é a proposta da própria Alba, comércio, mas que visa também a circulação de pessoas, dessa integração na parte mais cultural, da complementaridade, da solidariedade entre os países."

Morto em março de 2013, aos 58 anos, em decorrência de um câncer contra o qual lutou durante dois anos, Chávez transformou a realidade venezuelana e o papel da América Latina perante o mundo. O governo chavista na Venezuela foi fortemente marcado por um processo profundo de transferência de poder e de riqueza para a classe trabalhadora e para o conjunto da população.

Com uma das principais reservas de petróleo do mundo, a Venezuela era um dos alvos prioritários da espionagem dos EUA, assim como o Brasil. O governo estadunidense sempre demonstrou grande preocupação com a influência de Chávez na América Latina.

A Agência Nacional de Segurança dos EUA (NSA) também vigiou e-mails profissionais e pessoais de dez funcionários do alto escalão do Ministério de Planejamento e Finanças do país. A Petrobras e a presidenta Dilma Rousseff também foram alvo de espionagem. Piñero ainda alerta que desestabilizar países que não são simpáticos aos EUA também é uma prática recorrente. Entre os exemplos estão o golpe em Honduras, que depôs Manuel Zelaya em 2009, e a queda do presidente paraguaio Fernando Lugo, em 2012.

De São Paulo, da Radioagência NP, Leonardo Ferreira.

23/12/13

Foto: Reprodução

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